Khamis, 31 Januari 2019

4 kewajipan bila jadi seorang isteri

Setiap wanita muslimah yang sudah dihalalkan oleh seorang imamnya atau dengan erti kata sudah rasmi berkahwin, mempunyai tugas dan kewajibannya sebagai seorang isteri. Di dalam Al-Quran dijelaskan bahawa wanita muslimah memiliki kewajipan-kewajipan yang mesti dipenuhinya sebagai seorang isteri serta sebagai bentuk ibadah dalam hal rumah tangganya. Berikut kewajipanya:

1.Mengikuti imamnya (Suami).
Di dalam ajaran islam, suami ialah pemimpin atau imam bagi wanita yang berkewajipan dalam mencari nafkah untuk keperluan keluarga. Jadi sebagai isteri wajib mematuhi dan melayani suami dengan baik. Hal ini bukan berarti segala apa yang dilakukan dan diperintahkan oleh suami harus seluruhnya ditaati. Semua kembali lagi dengan komunikasi dan kerjasama yang baik diantara kedua belah pehak.

2.Menjaga dan menutup aurat.
Wanita muslim setelah berkahwin, berkewajiban untuk menjaga dan menutup auratnya, maknanya menggunakan hijab, tidak boleh memperlihatkan aurat lebih lebih lagi kalau boleh mengundang atau memancing birahi lelaki lain yang bukan suaminya.

3.Tidak Bersikap Jahiliah atau berlebihan. Maksud jahiliah ialah orang-orang yang memiliki kebiasaan berlebihan seperti dalam bersolek atau memakai barang kemas yang berlebihan, selain itu jahiliah si isteri tersebut juga boleh termasuk kedalam golongan riyak atau tayang, oleh itu jauhilah sikap ini.

4.Berbuat baik dan menjaga kehormatan keluarga. Apa yang dilakukan wanita dalam keluarga hakikatnya ialah melakukan kebaikan untuk dirinya sendiri. Menjaga nama baik keluarga sendiri dengan tidak berbuat jahat atau benda-benda yang melanggar syariat Islam sebagai seorang isteri.

Demikianlah kewajipan wanita setelah menikah menurut ajaran Islam. Jika benda tersebut diatas tetap kamu lakukan tentu saja akan berefek kepada kebahagiaan rumah tangga yang kamu bina. Segala macam bentuk kebahagiaan keluarga sangat dipengaruhi oleh seorang wanita dalam rumah tangga dan keluarganya serta peran dalam mendampingi suaminya dalam susah ataupun senang.

~Semoga bermanfaat.😉

📒 Peguam Syarie dan Khidmat Masyarakat

Five Minds for the Future

Key Lessons from “Five Minds for the Future”

1.      The Disciplined Mind
2.      The Synthesizing Mind
3.      The Creating Mind
4.      The Respectful Mind
5.      The Ethical Mind

“The Disciplined Mind”

You can call it a stage or a level which instigates people to explore the logical and factual, instead of abstract. To put it differently, this mind refers to the formal education.

If you plan on to pile up facts and proven theories in your head, well – congratulations, you are one step closer to becoming a master of discipline.  

“The Synthesizing Mind”

Synthesizers originate from various parts of the world. As the name implies, they were indeed the lords of the ancient times, dwelling in ancient Greece, Rome, and other cultural centers.

Their idea was to collect and reorganize the mountain of knowledge gathered throughout the years and design a useful format that can serve as a tool to quickly draw any information if such thing is required.

Plato and Aristotle are only some of the philosophers who launched this project.

“The Creating Mind”

As Einstein once told, imagination is more important than knowledge. Human creativity at its best is covered and questioned openly and transparently.

Employers are in search of thinkers, and employees who can provide “out-of-the-box” solutions, to the fluctuating and relentless economy.

Only a 100 years ago, the entrepreneurs were fierce with their workers, exploitation was normal, and creativity was almost banned. However, gradually we managed to close the circle of ignorance, and entered an era where creativity is the difference between success and collapse.

“The Respectful Mind”

Before we began assembling teams to improve the decision-making capacity of the organizations, companies or states, our ancestors used to gather in groups to improve their chances of survival.

Human beings are social creatures, but sometimes interactions take an unexpected turn for the worst, leading to heated arguments sometimes even with deadly consequences.  

This pattern cannot be eliminated with one swing, but a respectful mind can generate better understanding. The solution this mindset provides is easy to digest, – respect other’s opinion and contribute to resolving the problem.

“The Ethical Mind”

It’s said, becoming an ethical person with integrity in a superficial world, is like finding a needle in a haystack. Doing good deeds, caring for the community, and sincerely offering an apology if you misjudge certain conditions is the essence itself of this Mind.  

How you conduct your daily activities speaks a lot about you, either as an ethical or as a dishonest individual. If you spend the majority of time trying to do the right thing, you have all the relevant traits of keeping the “membership.”

Selasa, 8 Januari 2019

Why V/F Ratio Is Kept Constant in VFD?

Why V/F Ratio Is Kept Constant in VFD?

The speed of the induction motor can be governed by regulating the voltage, frequency, number of poles or by changing the slip. The speed of the motor can be calculated with following formula.

N= Ns(1-s)= 120 f /P(1-s)

Where,
Ns= 120 * f/P - Synchronous speed of motor
f- Frequency
S - Slip of the motor-
The difference between synchronization speed and actual speed of the motor,
P - Number of poles.

Speed regulation of induction motor with change in voltage alone has certain limitations, and with this method the speed can be governed in the range of 90% to 100% of the rated speed.

If the voltage is reduced below 90% of the rated voltage, the torque of the motor get reduced drastically as the torque of the motor is proportion to square of the applied voltage, and at this reduced voltage the motor can stall if load demands more torque than the maximum torque delivering capacity of the motor.

Speed regulation by changing the frequency is the best method to govern the speed of the motor. Stator voltage is also increased or decreased proportionately with increase or decrease of frequency with Pulse width modulator(PWM) inverter to maintain the constant flux in the motor.

With slip control, the speed of the slip ring induction motor can be governed. Speed control through slip control cause copper loss in the rotor. The rotor copper loss or the slip power of the rotor can be recovered with slip power recovery system(SPRS).

When the speed of induction motor is regulated by regulating frequency, the stator voltage is also increased/decreased in proportion to change in the frequency.

The increase or decrease in the voltage with frequency does not contribute in the speed variation of induction motor; however it is essential to regulate the voltage with change in frequency. Let us understand the reason of this.

The winding of the stator is wound on the magnetic core. The flux is produced when the sinusoidal voltage is applied at the stator terminal; the  produced magnetic flux in the core that travels through the air gap between stator and rotor gets linked to rotor winding.The flux produced in the core can be calculated with the formula as given below.
             
            Flux = Eb/ 4.44 f*T
Where Eb is the back EMF of stator
Thus, the flux in the stator core is proportional to ratio of V/F.

If speed is increased by increasing frequency, the voltage has to be increased in the same proportion with increase in frequency to maintain the constant flux in the core in order to avoid the overheating of the core.

If voltage is not decreased with decrease in frequency, the flux in the core will go above its rated design capacity and the core of the motor will get saturated. The saturation of core will lead to temperature rise of the core, and eventually the winding insulation may break down.

If the voltage is not increased with increase in frequency the flux in the stator core reduced from its rated average flux and motor will not able to produce the rated torque upto base speed.

In the application where speed is required to be increased above basespeed of the motor , the frequency is increased above 50 Hz., however it is not practically possible to increase the voltage above 440 volt in case of low voltage drives. Speed control above base speed is possible with weakening the main stator flux as V/ F ratio get reduced. This procedure of speed control can be used for increasing the speed of the drives which require less running torque above base speed. Increasing speed above the base speed of the motor will lead to decrease in the torque. With flux weakening the motor speed can be increased above 10 % of the rated speed of the motor. However, the motor design data must be checked before doing the speed regulation through fluxweakening.

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